Sub Trajectory: verbal


Chants number words in “sing-song” fashion and may run them together. The number words may be indistinguishable from one another.

May begin a nonverbal object "counting" such as copying an adult's item-by-item placement of objects (Stella et al., 2016).




You may see this:

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Other Examples:

  • A child says: "onetwothreefour…." as one sound, rather than as distinct number words.
  • After watching an adult put one to six "food tokens" into an animal puppet, a child imitates the puppet-feeding with attention to number. 

Help your student become a(n) Chanter

These activities provide initial experiences with verbal counting, helping children learn the sequence by including rhymes and songs and other rhythmic and playful games. 

Special Thanks To

Institute of Education Sciences
The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through grant numbers R305K050157, R305A120813, R305A110188, and R305A150243. to the University of Denver. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.