The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions is critical for children. An understanding of fractions will include clear concepts of whole numbers versus fractions, including the idea that a single unit fraction of 1/2 is larger than 1/4, despite the denominator in one-fourth being larger. Children also must learn how the arithmetic of numerators and denominators operates, with help to notice that adding numerators and denominators (such as ¾ + 1/3 yielding 4/6 leads to a sum that is smaller than the parts with which it began. (not noticing that 4/6 is less than ¾). Learning opportunities are key, and they differ considerably for different children. 

Inclusive Teaching Approaches

We are working with our partners at the STEM Innovation for Inclusion in Early Education (STEMI2E2) Center to improve engagement opportunities for young children with disabilities (O-5). As we move forward, we will update this area with specific tips for engaging with a lens of equity for diverse needs. 

Accessibility for Diverse Learners

  • Almost all of the videos on our website have closed captions in English and Spanish for the deaf and hard of hearing.
  • Most of our videos can also be accessed with a voiceover describing the scene for those with vision impairments. Click on the Accessibility toggle in the bottom right corner.

Accessibility for Children

Learn how to incorporate Fractions across the whole day in Routines, and find accommodations for diverse learners of all levels of Fractions in Teaching Strategies.

We have also created new activities or updated previous activities with new features that support engagement for all children. Features of the activities include intentionally inclusive design, accommodations for specific disabilities, questions for caregiver and early interventionist reflection on development, and ideas for learning in everyday routines. We have started by developing activities for infants and toddlers, with plans to add more at the older levels in the future. New inclusive activities for Counting are linked below (and also embedded in the site, at their respective trajectory level).

STEMIE Buried Treasure

STEMIE Freshly Baked Fractions

General accommodation recommendations can be accessed in our Inclusion resources, linked here

Read more about the STEMIIEE center here at their website

Special Thanks To

Institute of Education Sciences
The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through grant numbers R305K050157, R305A120813, R305A110188, and R305A150243. to the University of Denver. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.